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Med Image Anal. 2017 Jan;35:599-609. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2016 Sep 27.

Towards patient-specific modeling of mitral valve repair: 3D transesophageal echocardiography-derived parameter estimation.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, USA.
Siemens Corporation, Corporate Technology, Imaging and Computer Vision, Princeton, USA.
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA.
Section of Cardiac Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, USA; Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, USA; Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, USA.


Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is routinely used to provide important qualitative and quantitative information regarding mitral regurgitation. Contemporary planning of surgical mitral valve repair, however, still relies heavily upon subjective predictions based on experience and intuition. While patient-specific mitral valve modeling holds promise, its effectiveness is limited by assumptions that must be made about constitutive material properties. In this paper, we propose and develop a semi-automated framework that combines machine learning image analysis with geometrical and biomechanical models to build a patient-specific mitral valve representation that incorporates image-derived material properties. We use our computational framework, along with 3D TEE images of the open and closed mitral valve, to estimate values for chordae rest lengths and leaflet material properties. These parameters are initialized using generic values and optimized to match the visualized deformation of mitral valve geometry between the open and closed states. Optimization is achieved by minimizing the summed Euclidean distances between the estimated and image-derived closed mitral valve geometry. The spatially varying material parameters of the mitral leaflets are estimated using an extended Kalman filter to take advantage of the temporal information available from TEE. This semi-automated and patient-specific modeling framework was tested on 15 TEE image acquisitions from 14 patients. Simulated mitral valve closures yielded average errors (measured by point-to-point Euclidean distances) of 1.86 ± 1.24 mm. The estimated material parameters suggest that the anterior leaflet is stiffer than the posterior leaflet and that these properties vary between individuals, consistent with experimental observations described in the literature.


Finite element biomechanical model; Mitral valve; Mitral valve closure simulation; Patient-specific model; Transesophageal echocardiography

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