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Yale J Biol Med. 2016 Sep 30;89(3):285-297. eCollection 2016 Sep.

The Influence of the Gut Microbiota on Host Physiology: In Pursuit of Mechanisms.

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Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.


The results generated from the NIH funded Human Microbiome Project (HMP) are necessarily tied to the overall mission of the agency, which is to foster scientific discoveries as a basis for protecting and improving health. The investment in the HMP phase 1 accomplished many of its goals including the preliminary characterization of the human microbiome and the identification of links between microbiome diversity and disease states. Going forward, the next step in these studies must involve the identification of the functional molecular elements that mediate the positive influence of a eubiotic microbiome on health and disease. This review will focus on recent advances describing mechanistic events in the intestine elicited by the microbiome. These include symbiotic bacteria-induced activation of redox-dependent cell signaling, the bacterial production of short chain fatty acids and ensuing cellular responses, and the secretion of bacteriocins by bacteria that have anti-microbial activities against potential pathogens.


Hormesis; Intestine; Lactobacillus; Microbiome; Stem Cell; probiotics

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