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Magn Reson Med. 2016 Sep 26. doi: 10.1002/mrm.26465. [Epub ahead of print]

Detection of cerebral NAD+ in humans at 7T.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. robin.degraaf@yale.edu.
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. robin.degraaf@yale.edu.
3
Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
4
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
5
Department of Psychiatry, Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To develop 1 H-based MR detection of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) in the human brain at 7T and validate the 1 H results with NAD+ detection based on 31 P-MRS.

METHODS:

1 H-MR detection of NAD+ was achieved with a one-dimensional double-spin-echo method on a slice parallel to the surface coil transceiver. Perturbation of the water resonance was avoided through the use of frequency-selective excitation. 31 P-MR detection of NAD+ was performed with an unlocalized pulse-acquire sequence.

RESULTS:

Both 1 H- and 31 P-MRS allowed the detection of NAD+ signals on every subject in 16 min. Spectral fitting provided an NAD+ concentration of 107 ± 28 μM for 1 H-MRS and 367 ± 78 μM and 312 ± 65 μM for 31 P-MRS when uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG) was excluded and included, respectively, as an overlapping signal.

CONCLUSIONS:

NAD+ detection by 1 H-MRS is a simple method that comes at the price of reduced NMR visibility. NAD+ detection by 31 P-MRS has near-complete NMR visibility, but it is complicated by spectral overlap with NADH and UDPG. Overall, the 1 H- and 31 P-MR methods both provide exciting opportunities to study NAD+ metabolism on human brain in vivo. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

KEYWORDS:

1H-MRS; 31P-MRS; 7 Tesla; NAD+; human brain

PMID:
27670385
PMCID:
PMC5366282
[Available on 2018-03-26]
DOI:
10.1002/mrm.26465
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