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Neurourol Urodyn. 2017 Apr;36(4):1020-1025. doi: 10.1002/nau.23057. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is released by female mouse bladder urothelial cells and expressed by the urothelium as an early response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

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Department of Urology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
Department of Urology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.



We studied in vitro and in vivo response of primary mouse bladder urothelial cells (mBUC) and bladder urothelium to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), focusing on granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling.


Female C57BL/6 mBUC were exposed for 12 hr to differing concentrations of LPS (100 ng/ml to 10 µg/ml). mBUC were also exposed to a single dose of LPS (1 µg/ml) for 3, 6, 12 hr. Neutralizing GM-CSF antibody (0.1 μg/ml) was used block GM-CSF activity in vitro. In vivo experiments were performed, whereby, LPS (1 mg/ml) was instilled intravesically and left to dwell for 30 min followed by harvest of bladder urothelium 3 to 18 hr later. ELISA measured GM-CSF. qPCR quantitated mRNA for GM-CSF, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA for GM-CSF, GM-CSFRα, and β in bladder tissues. Immunohistofluorescence and Western blots for GM-CSFRα were performed on bladder tissues.


LPS induced a dose-dependent release of GM-CSF by mBUC. Mouse bladder urothelium did not express GM-CSF mRNA at baseline, but expressed GM-CSF mRNA 3 hr after in vivo LPS exposure, with GM-CSF mRNA expression disappearing 18 hr later. GM-CSFRα expression was confirmed in bladder urothelium. GM-CSF neutralizing antibody significantly diminished LPS-induced increases of VEGF and COX-2 mRNA expression.


Urothelium and mBUC secreted GM-CSF as an early response to LPS. GM-CSF mediated downstream expression of VEGF and COX-2. Urothelial GM-CSF may function as a signaling mediator for both inflammation and pain transduction. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:1020-1025, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


GM-CSF; host defense; urinary tract infection; urothelium

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