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Neuroimage Clin. 2016 Mar 4;11:349-356. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2016.03.004. eCollection 2016.

Power spectrum scale invariance as a neural marker of cocaine misuse and altered cognitive control.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, United States. Electronic address: jaime.ide@stonybrook.edu.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, United States.
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, United States.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, United States; Department of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, United States; Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, United States. Electronic address: chiang-shan.li@yale.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has highlighted the effects of chronic cocaine exposure on cerebral structures and functions, and implicated the prefrontal cortices in deficits of cognitive control. Recent investigations suggest power spectrum scale invariance (PSSI) of cerebral blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals as a neural marker of cerebral activity. We examined here how PSSI is altered in association with cocaine misuse and impaired cognitive control.

METHODS:

Eighty-eight healthy (HC) and seventy-five age and gender matched cocaine dependent (CD) adults participated in functional MRI of a stop signal task (SST). BOLD images were preprocessed using standard procedures in SPM, including detrending, band-pass filtering (0.01-0.25 Hz), and correction for head motions. Voxel-wise PSSI measures were estimated by a linear fit of the power spectrum with a log-log scale. In group analyses, we examined differences in PSSI between HC and CD, and its association with clinical and behavioral variables using a multiple regression. A critical component of cognitive control is post-signal behavioral adjustment, which is compromised in cocaine dependence. Therefore, we examined the PSSI changes in association with post-signal slowing (PSS) in the SST.

RESULTS:

Compared to HC, CD showed decreased PSS and PSSI in multiple frontoparietal regions. PSSI was positively correlated with PSS in HC in multiple regions, including the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and right supramarginal gyrus (SMG), which showed reduced PSSI in CD.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings suggest disrupted connectivity dynamics in the fronto-parietal areas in association with post-signal behavioral adjustment in cocaine addicts. These new findings support PSSI as a neural marker of impaired cognitive control in cocaine addiction.

KEYWORDS:

Cocaine addiction; Cognitive control; Conflict monitoring; PSSI; Post-signal slowing; post-error slowing; stimulant

PMID:
27294029
PMCID:
PMC4888196
DOI:
10.1016/j.nicl.2016.03.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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