Send to

Choose Destination
GMS J Med Educ. 2016 May 17;33(3):Doc46. doi: 10.3205/zma001045. eCollection 2016.

An Introduction to the Inverted/Flipped Classroom Model in Education and Advanced Training in Medicine and in the Healthcare Professions.

Author information

Klinikum der Universität München, Institut für Didaktik und Ausbildungsforschung in der Medizin, München, Deutschland.
Philipps Universität Marburg, Fachbereich Medizin - Studiendekanat, Marburg, Deutschland.
Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Studiendekanat, Medizindidaktik und Ausbildungsforschung, Göttinge, Deutschland; University College London, Health Behaviour Research Centre, London, UK.
CAU Kiel, Medizinische Fakultät, Studiendekanat, Koordination E-Learning, Kiel, Deutschland.
Technische Universität München (TUM), Fakultät für Medizin, Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, München, Deutschland.
Goethe-Universität, Carolinum Zahnärztliches Universitäts-Institut gGmbH, Poliklinik Zahnerhaltungskunde, Frankfurt am Main, Deutschland.
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt FB 16 Medizin, Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie- Anatomisches Institut II, Frankfurt, Deutschland.
RWTH Aachen, Metizinische Fakultät, Audiovisionelles Mediencentrum, Aachen, Deutschland.
Universität Ulm, Medizinische Fakultät, Studiendekanat Molekulare Medizin, Kompetenzzentrum eLearning in der Medizin BW, Ulm, Deutschland.
Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Dieter Scheffner Fachzentrum für medizinische Hochschullehre und evidenzbasierte Ausbildungsforschung, Berlin, Deutschland.
Klinikum der Universität München, Institut für Didaktik und Ausbildungsforschung in der Medizin, München, Deutschland; Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, USA.


in English, German

In describing the inverted classroom model (ICM), the following paper is meant to provide an introduction to the subject matter and to serve as a practical guide for those wishing to employ its methods in basic and advanced medical training and education. The ICM is a blended-learning method in which a self-directed learning phase (individual phase) precedes the classroom-instruction phase. During the online phase, factual knowledge is imparted that serves as a basis for the classroom phase. The classroom phase should subsequently be used to assimilate and implement the previously gained knowledge. In contrast, traditional course concepts impart factual knowledge in lectures, for example, or in other face-to-face teaching formats and are followed by the students' self-instruction in order to assimilate this knowledge. The goal of the ICM is the shift from passive learning to accelerated learning in order to foster learning at cognitively demanding levels such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation. The concurrent increase in production and use of screencasts and educational videos, the Open Educational Resources "movement" and the widespread use of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCS) have contributed to the increased dissemination of the inverted-classroom method. The intention of the present paper is to provide an introduction to the subject matter and simultaneously to offer a short overview of important projects and research results in the field of medical education and other health professions. Furthermore, an outline is given of the advantages and disadvantages of the model as well as its potential benefit to the future of medical education and training.


E-Learning; MOOCs; Open Educational Resources; blended learning; educational video; flipped classroom; inverted classroom; medical education; podcasts; screencasts

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for German Medical Science GMS Publishing House Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center