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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Jun 7;113(23):6338-44. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1606335113. Epub 2016 May 24.

Typhoid toxin provides a window into typhoid fever and the biology of Salmonella Typhi.

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Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536


Salmonella Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever, a disease that has challenged humans throughout history and continues to be a major public health concern. Unlike infections with most other Salmonellae, which result in self-limiting gastroenteritis, typhoid fever is a life-threatening systemic disease. Furthermore, in contrast to most Salmonellae, which can infect a broad range of hosts, S. Typhi is a strict human pathogen. The unique features of S. Typhi pathogenesis and its stringent host specificity have been a long-standing puzzle. The discovery of typhoid toxin not only has provided major insight into these questions but also has offered unique opportunities to develop novel therapeutic and prevention strategies to combat typhoid fever.


Salmonella Typhi; bacterial pathogenesis; bacterial toxins; cell autonomous immunity; typhoid fever

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