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PLoS Pathog. 2016 Apr 8;12(4):e1005552. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005552. eCollection 2016 Apr.

The Salmonella Effector Protein SopA Modulates Innate Immune Responses by Targeting TRIM E3 Ligase Family Members.

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Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.


Salmonella Typhimurium stimulates inflammatory responses in the intestinal epithelium, which are essential for its ability to replicate within the intestinal tract. Stimulation of these responses is strictly dependent on the activity of a type III secretion system encoded within its pathogenicity island 1, which through the delivery of effector proteins, triggers signaling pathways leading to inflammation. One of these effectors is SopA, a HECT-type E3 ligase, which is required for the efficient stimulation of inflammation in an animal model of Salmonella Typhimurium infection. We show here that SopA contributes to the stimulation of innate immune responses by targeting two host E3 ubiquitin ligases, TRIM56 and TRIM65. We also found that TRIM65 interacts with the innate immune receptor MDA5 enhancing its ability to stimulate interferon-β signaling. Therefore, by targeting TRIM56 and TRIM65, SopA can stimulate signaling through two innate immune receptors, RIG-I and MDA5. These findings describe a Salmonella mechanism to modulate inflammatory responses by directly targeting innate immune signaling mechanisms.

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