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Pediatr Obes. 2017 Jun;12(3):213-220. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12127. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

School breakfast and body mass index: a longitudinal observational study of middle school students.

Author information

1
Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.
2
Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, University of Connecticut, Hartford, CT, USA.
3
Henderson Consulting, Guilford, CT, USA.
4
Community Alliance for Research and Engagement, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The objectives are to identify breakfast location patterns (frequency and place of breakfast consumption) and explore the association between breakfast patterns and weight status over time among preadolescents.

METHODS:

Surveys and physical measurements were completed among students from 12 randomly selected schools in a medium-sized urban school district. All students were followed from fifth (Fall, 2011) to seventh grade (Fall, 2013). Latent transition analysis and longitudinal analyses were used in the study.

RESULTS:

Six distinct breakfast location patterns emerged at baseline (1) frequent skippers; (2) inconsistent school eaters; (3) inconsistent home eaters; (4) regular home eaters; (5) regular school eaters and (6) double breakfast eaters. Results from the longitudinal analyses revealed that there was an increased odds of overweight/obesity among frequent skippers compared with double breakfast eaters after adjusting for school, year and students' race/ethnicity (AOR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.67, 4.24). Weight changes from year to year were similar between double breakfast eaters and other students.

CONCLUSIONS:

Concerns that a second breakfast at school increases risk of excessive weight gain are unsupported. Students who regularly consumed breakfasts at school, including double breakfast eaters, were more likely to exhibit a healthy weight trajectory. Additional research is needed to understand the impact of universal school breakfast on students' overall diets.

KEYWORDS:

Childhood obesity; double breakfast; middle school students; school breakfast

PMID:
26989876
DOI:
10.1111/ijpo.12127
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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