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Cancer Sci. 2016 Apr;107(4):499-506. doi: 10.1111/cas.12906. Epub 2016 Mar 28.

Preclinical and first-in-human phase I studies of KW-2450, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with insulin-like growth factor receptor-1/insulin receptor selectivity.

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Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA, USA.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA, USA.
Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA, USA.
Yale Cancer Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA, USA.
Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Fuji Research Park, R&D Division, Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd., Shizuoka, Japan.
Planning Department, Kyowa Hakko Kirin Pharma Inc., Princeton, NJ, USA.
Tokyo Research Park, R&D Division, Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.


Numerous solid tumors overexpress or have excessively activated insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R). We summarize preclinical studies and the first-in-human study of KW-2450, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with IGF-1R and insulin receptor (IR) inhibitory activity. Preclinical activity of KW-2450 was evaluated in various in vitro and in vivo models. It was then evaluated in a phase I clinical trial in 13 patients with advanced solid tumors (NCT00921336). In vitro, KW-2450 inhibited human IGF-1R and IR kinases (IC50 7.39 and 5.64 nmol/L, respectively) and the growth of various human malignant cell lines. KW-2450 40 mg/kg showed modest growth inhibitory activity and inhibited IGF-1-induced signal transduction in the murine HT-29/GFP colon carcinoma xenograft model. The maximum tolerated dose of KW-2450 was 37.5 mg once daily continuously; dose-limiting toxicity occurred in two of six patients at 50 mg/day (both grade 3 hyperglycemia) and in one of seven patients at 37.5 mg/day (grade 3 rash). Four of 10 evaluable patients showed stable disease. Single-agent KW-2450 was associated with modest antitumor activity in heavily pretreated patients with solid tumors and is being further investigated in combination therapy with lapatinib/letrozole in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-postive metastatic breast cancer.


Insulin receptor; KW-2450; insulin-like growth factor receptor-1; phase I; pre-clinical

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