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Nat Commun. 2016 Feb 2;7:10165. doi: 10.1038/ncomms10165.

Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome.

Author information

1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, USA.
2
Fralin Life Science Institute and Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA.
3
Department of Biology, Applied Zoology, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01062, Germany.
4
Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA.
5
National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA.
6
Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546, USA.
7
Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA.
8
ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Bengaluru 560024, India.
9
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA.
10
Cologne Biocenter and Zoological Institute, University of Cologne, Cologne 50674, Germany.
11
Institut für Bienenkunde (Polytechnische Gesellschaft), Goethe University Frankfurt, Oberursel 61440, Germany.
12
Department of Neurobiology and Genetics, Theodor-Boveri-Institute, Biocenter, University of Würzburg, Würzburg 97074, Germany.
13
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biology, Freie Universitaet, Berlin 14195, Germany.
14
Department of Genetic Medicine and Development and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, University of Geneva, Geneva 1211, Switzerland.
15
Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
16
Pest Control Biology and Research Technologies, Bayer CropScience AG, Monheim 40789, Germany.
17
Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA.
18
Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.
19
Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA.
20
Institue de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon (IGFL), Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, UMR5242-CNRS, Lyon 69007, France.
21
Department of Entomology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena 07745, Germany.
22
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.
23
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
24
Department of Biochemistry and Genetics Otago, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.
25
Institute of Fundamental Science, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.
26
Institute for Developmental Biology, University of Cologne, Cologne 50674, Germany.
27
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104, USA.
28
Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA.
29
Center for Autoimmune Genomics and Etiology, Division of Biomedical Informatics, and Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA.
30
Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA.
31
Department of Biological Chemistry and Crop Protection, Rothamsted Research, BBSRC Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, UK.
32
United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service Bee Research Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA.
33
Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.
34
Department of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.
35
Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
36
Department of Entomology and W.M. Keck Center for Behavioral Biology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA.

Abstract

The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host-symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human-bed bug and symbiont-bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite.

PMID:
26836814
PMCID:
PMC4740739
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms10165
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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