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Plant Cell. 2016 Feb;28(2):557-67. doi: 10.1105/tpc.15.00583. Epub 2016 Jan 13.

The Transmembrane Region of Guard Cell SLAC1 Channels Perceives CO2 Signals via an ABA-Independent Pathway in Arabidopsis.

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Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan.
Cell and Developmental Biology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093.
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Biotechnology Research Center, Toyama Prefectural University, Imizu, Toyama 939-0398, Japan.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan


The guard cell S-type anion channel, SLOW ANION CHANNEL1 (SLAC1), a key component in the control of stomatal movements, is activated in response to CO2 and abscisic acid (ABA). Several amino acids existing in the N-terminal region of SLAC1 are involved in regulating its activity via phosphorylation in the ABA response. However, little is known about sites involved in CO2 signal perception. To dissect sites that are necessary for the stomatal CO2 response, we performed slac1 complementation experiments using transgenic plants expressing truncated SLAC1 proteins. Measurements of gas exchange and stomatal apertures in the truncated transgenic lines in response to CO2 and ABA revealed that sites involved in the stomatal CO2 response exist in the transmembrane region and do not require the SLAC1 N and C termini. CO2 and ABA regulation of S-type anion channel activity in guard cells of the transgenic lines confirmed these results. In vivo site-directed mutagenesis experiments targeted to amino acids within the transmembrane region of SLAC1 raise the possibility that two tyrosine residues exposed on the membrane are involved in the stomatal CO2 response.

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