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NMR Biomed. 2016 Sep;29(9):1222-30. doi: 10.1002/nbm.3440. Epub 2015 Nov 25.

Proton observed phosphorus editing (POPE) for in vivo detection of phospholipid metabolites.

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Department of Radiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Department of Radiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.


The purpose of this article was to compare the sensitivity of proton observed phosphorus editing (POPE) with direct (31) P MRS with Ernst angle excitation for (1) H-(31) P coupled metabolites at 7 T. POPE sequences were developed for detecting phosphocholine (PC), phosphoethanolamine (PE), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), and glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE) on the (1) H channel, thereby using the enhanced sensitivity of the (1) H nuclei over (31) P detection. Five healthy volunteers were examined with POPE and (31) P-MRS. POPE editing showed a more than doubled sensitivity in an ideal phantom experiment as compared with direct (31) P MRS with Ernst angle excitation. In vivo, despite increased relaxation losses, significant gains in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 30-40% were shown for PE and GPE + PC levels in the human brain. The SNR of GPC was lower in the POPE measurement compared with the (31) P-MRS measurement. Furthermore, selective narrowband editing on the (31) P channel showed the ability to separate the overlapping GPE and PE signals in the (1) H spectrum. POPE can be used for enhanced detection of (1) H-(31) P coupled metabolites in vivo.


POPE; brain; in vivo; phospholipids; proton observed phosphorus editing

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