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Soc Sci Med. 2015 Dec;147:222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.11.010. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

Transgender stigma and health: A critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions.

Author information

1
Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA; The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address: Jaclyn.White@Yale.edu.
2
The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, Boston, MA, USA; Division of General Pediatrics, Children's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
3
Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.

Abstract

RATIONALE:

Transgender people in the United States experience widespread prejudice, discrimination, violence, and other forms of stigma.

OBJECTIVE:

This critical review aims to integrate the literature on stigma towards transgender people in the U.S.

RESULTS:

This review demonstrates that transgender stigma limits opportunities and access to resources in a number of critical domains (e.g., employment, healthcare), persistently affecting the physical and mental health of transgender people. The applied social ecological model employed here elucidates that transgender stigma operates at multiple levels (i.e., individual, interpersonal, structural) to impact health. Stigma prevention and coping interventions hold promise for reducing stigma and its adverse health-related effects in transgender populations.

CONCLUSION:

Additional research is needed to document the causal relationship between stigma and adverse health as well as the mediators and moderators of stigma in US transgender populations. Multi-level interventions to prevent stigma towards transgender people are warranted.

KEYWORDS:

Health; Inequities; Interventions; Stigma; Transgender

PMID:
26599625
PMCID:
PMC4689648
DOI:
10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.11.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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