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Expert Rev Med Devices. 2016;13(1):57-69. doi: 10.1586/17434440.2016.1109442. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

Moving toward the ideal insulin for insulin pumps.

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a Department of Pediatrics , Yale University School of Medicine , New Haven , CT , USA.
b Atlanta Diabetes Associates , Atlanta , GA , USA.
c Yale Center for Clinical Investigation , Yale University School of Medicine , New Haven , CT , USA.


Advances in insulin formulations have been important for diabetes management and achieving optimal glycemic control. Rapid-acting insulin analogs provide a faster time-action profile than regular insulin and are approved for use in pumps. However, the need remains for therapy to deliver a more physiologic insulin profile. New insulin formulations and delivery methods are in development, with the aim of accelerating insulin absorption to accomplish ultra-fast-acting insulin time-action profiles. Furthermore, the integration of continuous glucose monitoring with insulin pump therapy enables on-going adjustment of insulin delivery to optimize glycemic control throughout the day and night. These technological and pharmacological advances are likely to facilitate the development of closed-loop pump systems (i.e., artificial pancreas), and improve glycemic control and quality of life for patients with diabetes.


CGM; CSII; closed-loop delivery system; faster-acting insulin aspart; hyaluronidase; inhaled insulin; pump; site-warming devices; ultra-fast-acting insulin analogs

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