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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Nov 3;112(44):13639-44. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1516215112. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

Genetic structure in village dogs reveals a Central Asian domestication origin.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853;
2
Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510;
3
Department of Clinical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853;
4
Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA 02142;
5
Biology Department, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon;
6
Honiara Veterinary Clinic and Surgery, Honiara, Solomon Islands;
7
Département de l'environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Mbandaka, Mbandaka, Democratic Republic of Congo;
8
Académico de Arqueologia, Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Cusco, Peru;
9
Department of Animal Physiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia;
10
Microbiology, University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia;
11
Sanskriti Centre, Hazaribagh, Jharkhand, India 825 301;
12
The INDog Project, Maharashtra, India;
13
The Mongolian Bankhar Project, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia;
14
School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Papua New Guinea, Boroko, Port Moresby, National Capital District, 111, Papua New Guinea;
15
Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Federal District, Mexico;
16
University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655;
17
Vietnam National Museum of Nature, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam;
18
Department of Biology, La Sierra University, Riverside, CA 92505;
19
Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305.
20
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853; boyko@cornell.edu.

Abstract

Dogs were the first domesticated species, originating at least 15,000 y ago from Eurasian gray wolves. Dogs today consist primarily of two specialized groups--a diverse set of nearly 400 pure breeds and a far more populous group of free-ranging animals adapted to a human commensal lifestyle (village dogs). Village dogs are more genetically diverse and geographically widespread than purebred dogs making them vital for unraveling dog population history. Using a semicustom 185,805-marker genotyping array, we conducted a large-scale survey of autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosome diversity in 4,676 purebred dogs from 161 breeds and 549 village dogs from 38 countries. Geographic structure shows both isolation and gene flow have shaped genetic diversity in village dog populations. Some populations (notably those in the Neotropics and the South Pacific) are almost completely derived from European stock, whereas others are clearly admixed between indigenous and European dogs. Importantly, many populations--including those of Vietnam, India, and Egypt-show minimal evidence of European admixture. These populations exhibit a clear gradient of short--range linkage disequilibrium consistent with a Central Asian domestication origin.

KEYWORDS:

admixture; domestication; haplotype diversity; introgression; linkage disequilibrium

PMID:
26483491
PMCID:
PMC4640804
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1516215112
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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