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Biomed Opt Express. 2015 Aug 24;6(9):3515-38. doi: 10.1364/BOE.6.003515. eCollection 2015 Sep 1.

Three-dimensional, three-vector-component velocimetry of cilia-driven fluid flow using correlation-based approaches in optical coherence tomography.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, 55 Prospect St., New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.
2
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.
3
Department of Pediatrics, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA ; Current affiliations: Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19129, USA ; St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA, 19134, USA.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA ; Department of Genetics, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.
5
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, 55 Prospect St., New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA ; Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA ; Department of Pediatrics, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA ; Department of Applied Physics, PO Box 208267, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.

Abstract

Microscale quantification of cilia-driven fluid flow is an emerging area in medical physiology, including pulmonary and central nervous system physiology. Cilia-driven fluid flow is most completely described by a three-dimensional, three-component (3D3C) vector field. Here, we generate 3D3C velocimetry measurements by synthesizing higher dimensional data from lower dimensional measurements obtained using two separate optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based approaches: digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and dynamic light scattering (DLS)-OCT. Building on previous work, we first demonstrate directional DLS-OCT for 1D2C velocimetry measurements in the sub-1 mm/s regime (sub-2.5 inch/minute regime) of cilia-driven fluid flow in Xenopus epithelium, an important animal model of the ciliated respiratory tract. We then extend our analysis toward 3D3C measurements in Xenopus using both DLS-OCT and DPIV. We demonstrate the use of DPIV-based approaches towards flow imaging of Xenopus cerebrospinal fluid and mouse trachea, two other important ciliary systems. Both of these flows typically fall in the sub-100 μm/s regime (sub-0.25 inch/minute regime). Lastly, we develop a framework for optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio of 3D3C flow velocity measurements synthesized from 2D2C measures in non-orthogonal planes. In all, 3D3C OCT-based velocimetry has the potential to comprehensively characterize the flow performance of biological ciliated surfaces.

KEYWORDS:

(110.4500) Optical coherence tomography; (120.7250) Velocimetry; (170.3340) Laser Doppler velocimetry; (170.6480) Spectroscopy, speckle

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