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AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015 Oct;205(4):726-34. doi: 10.2214/AJR.15.14650.

Arteriovenous Fistulas and Their Characteristic Sites of Stenosis.

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1
1 Both authors: Department of Radiology, Yale-New Haven Hospital, 20 York St, New Haven, CT 06511.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

In the United States, more than 250,000 patients with end-stage renal disease are dialyzed through arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). The three most common AVFs are the radiocephalic fistula, the brachiocephalic fistula, and the brachial artery-to-transposed basilic vein fistula. Although many potential access site stenoses can and do occur within any given fistula, each fistula has a characteristic site of stenosis. This article will discuss the characteristic site of stenosis for each type of fistula including the effects of stenosis at that site on fistula function, and their treatment.

CONCLUSION:

The characteristic sites of stenosis in AVFs used for dialysis share in common significant angulation, which likely causes stenosis by leading to turbulent flow and intimal injury. While balloon dilation is considered first-line therapy, further interventions such as stent placement or surgical revision are sometimes needed to treat these recalcitrant areas of stenosis.

KEYWORDS:

arteriovenous fistulas; cephalic arch stenosis; dialysis access; juxtaanastomotic stenosis; proximal swing segment stenosis

PMID:
26397321
DOI:
10.2214/AJR.15.14650
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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