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Cancer Epidemiol. 2015 Dec;39(6):1078-83. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2015.09.005. Epub 2015 Sep 14.

Family history of skin cancer is associated with early-onset basal cell carcinoma independent of MC1R genotype.

Author information

1
Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520, United States.
2
Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520, United States; Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT 06520, United States.
3
Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT 06520, United States; Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, United States.
4
Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520, United States; Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT 06520, United States. Electronic address: leah.ferrucci@yale.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

As a marker of genetic susceptibility and shared lifestyle characteristics, family history of cancer is often used to evaluate an individual's risk for developing a particular malignancy. With comprehensive data on pigment characteristics, lifestyle factors, and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence, we sought to clarify the role of family history of skin cancer in early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Early onset BCC cases (n=376) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=383) under age 40 were identified through Yale dermatopathology. Self-report data on family history of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), including age of onset in relatives, was available from a structured interview. Participants also provided saliva samples for sequencing of MC1R.

RESULTS:

A family history of skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of early-onset BCC (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.80-3.45). In multivariate models, family history remained a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC after adjustment for pigment characteristics, UV exposure, and MC1R genotype (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.74-3.35).

CONCLUSIONS:

Risk for BCC varied based upon the type and age of onset of skin cancer among affected relatives; individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 were at highest risk for BCC (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.90-7.90). Even after taking into account potential confounding effects of MC1R genotype and various lifestyle factors that close relatives may share, family history of skin cancer remained strongly associated with early-onset BCC.

KEYWORDS:

Basal cell carcinoma; Epidemiology; Family history; Skin cancer

PMID:
26381319
PMCID:
PMC4679454
DOI:
10.1016/j.canep.2015.09.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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