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PLoS One. 2015 Aug 28;10(8):e0136539. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136539. eCollection 2015.

Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children Estimated by a Test-Negative Case-Control Design Study Based on Influenza Rapid Diagnostic Test Results.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan; Center for Infectious Diseases and Infection Control, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
2
Department of Paediatrics, Keiyu Hospital, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.
3
Department of Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization, Utsunomiya, Tochigi Medical Center, Tochigi, Japan.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Ohtsuka Hospital, Toshima-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
5
Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
6
Department of Pediatrics, Eiju General Hospital, Taito-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
7
Department of Pediatrics, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
8
Department of Pediatrics, Yokohama Rosai Hospital, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.
9
Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization, Tokyo Medical Center, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
10
Department of Pediatrics, Nippon Kokan Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan.
11
Department of Pediatrics, Kyosai Tachikawa Hospital, Tachikawa, Tokyo, Japan.
12
Department of Paediatrics, Kawasaki Municipal Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan.
13
Department of Pediatrics, Shizuoka City Shimizu Hospital, Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan.
14
Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Dental College Ichikawa General Hospital, Ichikawa, Chiba, Japan.
15
Department of Pediatrics, Saitama City Hospital, Saitama, Saitama, Japan.
16
Department of Pediatrics, Fuji Heavy Industries Health Insurance Society Ota Memorial Hospital, Ota, Gunma, Japan.
17
Department of Pediatrics, Hiratsuka Kyosai Hospital, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan.
18
Department of Pediatrics, Yokohama Municipal Citizen's hospital, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.
19
Department of Pediatrics, Japanese Red Cross Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan.
20
Department of Pediatrics, Hino Municipal Hospital, Hino, Tokyo, Japan.
21
Department of Pediatrics, Sano Kousei General Hospital, Sano, Tochigi, Japan.
22
Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization Saitama National Hospital, Wako, Saitama, Japan.
23
Department of Pediatrics, Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan.
24
Yokohama City Institute of Health, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.
25
Center for Infectious Diseases and Infection Control, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Infectious Diseases, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza in children 6 months to 15 years of age in 22 hospitals in Japan during the 2013-14 season. Our study was conducted according to a test-negative case-control design based on influenza rapid diagnostic test (IRDT) results. Outpatients who came to our clinics with a fever of 38 °C or over and had undergone an IRDT were enrolled in this study. Patients with positive IRDT results were recorded as cases, and patients with negative results were recorded as controls. Between November 2013 and March 2014, a total of 4727 pediatric patients (6 months to 15 years of age) were enrolled: 876 were positive for influenza A, 66 for A(H1N1)pdm09 and in the other 810 the subtype was unknown; 1405 were positive for influenza B; and 2445 were negative for influenza. Overall VE was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39-52). Adjusted VE against influenza A, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, and influenza B was 63% (95% CI, 56-69), 77% (95% CI, 59-87), and 26% (95% CI, 14-36), respectively. Influenza vaccine was not effective against either influenza A or influenza B in infants 6 to 11 months of age. Two doses of influenza vaccine provided better protection against influenza A infection than a single dose did. VE against hospitalization influenza A infection was 76%. Influenza vaccine was effective against influenza A, especially against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, but was much less effective against influenza B.

PMID:
26317334
PMCID:
PMC4552891
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0136539
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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