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Am J Public Health. 2015 Sep;105(9):1901-10. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302687. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Sex-Related Disparities in Criminal Justice and HIV Treatment Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study of HIV-Infected Inmates.

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Jaimie P. Meyer and Frederick L. Altice are with the AIDS Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Jaimie P. Meyer is also with the Chronic Disease Epidemiology Department, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven. Javier Cepeda and Frederick L. Altice are with the Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health. Faye S. Taxman is with the Criminology, Law, and Society Department, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA.



We evaluated sex-related differences in HIV and criminal justice (CJ) outcomes.


We quantified sex-related differences in criminal offenses, incarcerations, and HIV outcomes among all HIV-infected inmates on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Connecticut (2005-2012). Computed criminogenic risk scores estimated future CJ involvement. Stacked logistic regression models with random effects identified significant correlates of HIV viral suppression on CJ entry, reflecting preceding community-based treatment.


Compared with 866 HIV-infected men on ART (1619 incarcerations), 223 women (461 incarcerations) were more likely to be younger, White, and medically insured, with shorter incarceration periods (mean = 196.8 vs 368.1 days), mostly for public disorder offenses. One third of both women and men had viral suppression on CJ entry, correlating positively with older age and having treated comorbidities. Entry viral suppression inversely correlated with incarceration duration for women and with criminogenic risk score for men.


In the largest contemporary cohort of HIV-infected inmates on ART, women's higher prevalence of nonviolent offenses and treatable comorbidities supports alternatives to incarceration strategies. Sex-specific interventions for CJ populations with HIV effectively align public health and safety goals.

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