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Diabetes Care. 2015 Sep;38(9):1736-41. doi: 10.2337/dc14-2472. Epub 2015 Jul 7.

Inhaled Formoterol Diminishes Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
2
Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT robert.sherwin@yale.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Hypoglycemia is one of the major factors limiting implementation of tight glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality during intensive insulin treatment. β-2 Adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists have been reported to diminish nocturnal hypoglycemia; however, whether long-acting inhaled β-2 AR agonists could potentially be used to treat or prevent hypoglycemia has not been established.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

Seven patients with type 1 diabetes and seven healthy control subjects received inhaled formoterol (48 μg), a highly specific β-2 AR agonist, or a placebo during a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp study to evaluate its capacity to antagonize the effect of insulin. In a second set of studies, five subjects with type 1 diabetes received inhaled formoterol to assess its effect as a preventive therapy for insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

RESULTS:

During a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp, compared with placebo, inhaled formoterol decreased the glucose infusion rate required to maintain plasma glucose at a target level by 45-50% (P < 0.05). There was no significant effect on glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol, or growth hormone release (P = NS). Furthermore, in volunteers with type 1 diabetes 1 h after increasing basal insulin delivery twofold, glucose levels dropped to 58 ± 5 mg/dL, whereas hypoglycemia was prevented by inhaled formoterol (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Inhalation of the β-2 AR-specific agonist formoterol may be useful in the prevention or treatment of acute hypoglycemia and thus may help patients with type 1 diabetes achieve optimal glucose control more safely.

PMID:
26153273
PMCID:
PMC4542274
DOI:
10.2337/dc14-2472
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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