Send to

Choose Destination
Blood Rev. 2016 Jan;30(1):1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.blre.2015.06.004. Epub 2015 Jun 19.

The evolving field of prognostication and risk stratification in MDS: Recent developments and future directions.

Author information

Section of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
Section of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:


The clinical course of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is characterized by wide variability reflecting the underlying genetic and biological heterogeneity of the disease. Accurate prediction of outcomes for individual patients is an integral part of the evidence-based risk/benefit calculations that are necessary for tailoring the aggressiveness of therapeutic interventions. While several prognostication tools have been developed and validated for risk stratification, each of these systems has limitations. The recent progress in genomic sequencing techniques has led to discoveries of recurrent molecular mutations in MDS patients with independent impact on relevant clinical outcomes. Reliable assays of these mutations have already entered the clinic and efforts are currently ongoing to formally incorporate mutational analysis into the existing clinicopathologic risk stratification tools. Additionally, mutational analysis holds promise for going beyond prognostication to therapeutic selection and individualized treatment-specific prediction of outcomes; abilities that would revolutionize MDS patient care. Despite these exciting developments, the best way of incorporating molecular testing for use in prognostication and prediction of outcomes in clinical practice remains undefined and further research is warranted.


Biomarkers; Genome sequencing; Hypomethylating agents; Mutations; Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS); Prognosis; Prognostication; Risk stratification

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center