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Neuroimage. 2015 Oct 1;119:286-95. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.06.032. Epub 2015 Jun 18.

Anticipating conflict: Neural correlates of a Bayesian belief and its motor consequence.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06519, USA. Electronic address: sien.hu@yale.edu.
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.
3
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06519, USA.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06519, USA; Department of Neurobiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address: chiang-shan.li@yale.edu.

Abstract

Previous studies have examined the neural correlates of proactive control using a variety of behavioral paradigms; however, the neural network relating the control process to its behavioral consequence remains unclear. Here, we applied a dynamic Bayesian model to a large fMRI data set of the stop signal task to address this issue. By estimating the probability of the stop signal - p(Stop) - trial by trial, we showed that higher p(Stop) is associated with prolonged go trial reaction time (RT), indicating proactive control of motor response. In modeling fMRI signals at trial and target onsets, we distinguished activities of proactive control, prediction error, and RT slowing. We showed that the anterior pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) responds specifically to increased stop signal likelihood, and its activity is correlated with activations of the posterior pre-SMA and bilateral anterior insula during prolonged response times. This directional link is also supported by Granger causality analysis. Furthermore, proactive control, prediction error, and time-on-task are each mapped to distinct areas in the medial prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings dissect regional functions of the medial prefrontal cortex in cognitive control and provide system level evidence associating conflict anticipation with its motor consequence.

KEYWORDS:

Bayesian; Imaging; Inhibitory control; Stop signal task; Top–down

PMID:
26095091
PMCID:
PMC4564311
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.06.032
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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