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Int J Cancer. 2015 Dec 1;137(11):2618-29. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29632. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin C-terminal domain labeled to fluorescent dyes for in vivo visualization of micrometastatic chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer.

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Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Palazzetto Polifunzionale, Brescia, Italy.
Department of Radiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Rome, Italy.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT.
Department of Comparative Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.


Identification of micrometastatic disease at the time of surgery remains extremely challenging in ovarian cancer patients. We used fluorescence microscopy, an in vivo imaging system and a fluorescence stereo microscope to evaluate fluorescence distribution in Claudin-3- and -4-overexpressing ovarian tumors, floating tumor clumps isolated from ascites and healthy organs. To do so, mice harboring chemotherapy-naïve and chemotherapy-resistant human ovarian cancer xenografts or patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were treated with the carboxyl-terminal binding domain of the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (c-CPE) conjugated to FITC (FITC-c-CPE) or the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent tag IRDye CW800 (CW800-c-CPE) either intraperitoneally (IP) or intravenously (IV). We found tumor fluorescence to plateau at 30 min after IP injection of both the FITC-c-CPE and the CW800-c-CPE peptides and to be significantly higher than in healthy organs (p < 0.01). After IV injection of CW800-c-CPE, tumor fluorescence plateaued at 6 hr while the most favorable tumor-to-background fluorescence ratio (TBR) was found at 48 hr in both mouse models. Importantly, fluorescent c-CPE was highly sensitive for the in vivo visualization of peritoneal micrometastatic tumor implants and the identification of ovarian tumor spheroids floating in malignant ascites that were otherwise not detectable by conventional visual observation. The use of the fluorescent c-CPE peptide may represent a novel and effective optical approach at the time of primary debulking surgery for the real-time detection of micrometastatic ovarian disease overexpressing the Claudin-3 and -4 receptors or the identification of residual disease at the time of interval debulking surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment.


Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin; IRDye CW800; ovarian cancer; real-time imaging; residual disease

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