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Pediatr Diabetes. 2016 Jun;17(4):266-73. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12281. Epub 2015 May 8.

Presentation of youth with type 2 diabetes in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium.

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Department of Pediatrics, Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.
Jaeb Center for Health Research, Tampa, FL, USA.
Center for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Child Health Evaluation and Research Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Pediatric Endocrinology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.



Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in youth is recognized as a pediatric disease, but few reports describe the characteristics during diagnosis. We describe the clinical presentation of 503 youth with T2D.


The Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) T2D Clinic Registry enrolled T2D participants from eight pediatric diabetes centers in the USA. Clinical and laboratory characteristics at the time of diagnosis were analyzed.


In total 67% presented with symptoms of diabetes and confirming laboratory data, but 33% were identified by testing at risk children, 11% presented with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and 2% with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS). The mean age was 13.1 ± 2.3 yr (range, 4.6-19.8 yr) with 38 (8%) less than 10 yr of age at diagnosis. The majority was female (65%), Hispanic (54%) and had a family history of T2D (92%). The median body mass index (BMI) z-score was 2.3 (interquartile range 2.0-2.6). Fewer than half (46%) lived with both parents, only 30% had parents with education beyond high school, and 43% lived in a household with an income of <$25 000 per year. In the initial month after diagnosis, almost all (92%) were treated with insulin (30%), metformin (31%), or a combination of insulin and metformin (32%); 7% were treated with lifestyle modification alone.


The demographics of T2D in youth indicate significant social vulnerability which may affect outcomes. Metformin and insulin were the initial treatment in most youth. Importantly, T2D may occur at younger ages than previously thought and should be considered in all high-risk children presenting with diabetes.


Pediatric Diabetes Consortium; blood pressure; body mass index; diabetic ketoacidosis; diagnosis; glycated hemoglobin; hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state; treatment; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes

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