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JAMA Pediatr. 2015 Jun;169(6):583-91. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.54.

Association of definition of acute kidney injury by cystatin C rise with biomarkers and clinical outcomes in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
2
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Nephrology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
3
Program of Applied Translational Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut4Clinical Epidemiology Research Center, Veterans Affairs Connecticut, West Haven.
4
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California.
5
Department of Pediatrics, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York.
6
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
7
Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Research has identified improved biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI). Cystatin C (CysC) is a better glomerular filtration rate marker than serum creatinine (SCr) and may improve AKI definition.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine if defining clinical AKI by increases in CysC vs SCr alters associations with biomarkers and clinical outcomes.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

Three-center prospective cohort study of intensive care units in New Haven, Connecticut, Cincinnati, Ohio, and Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Participants were 287 patients 18 years or younger without preoperative AKI or end-stage renal disease who were undergoing cardiac surgery. The study dates were July 1, 2007, through December 31, 2009.

EXPOSURES:

For biomarker vs clinical AKI associations, the exposures were first postoperative (0-6 hours after surgery) urine interleukin 18, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule 1, and liver fatty acid-binding protein. For clinical AKI outcome associations, the exposure was Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes AKI definition (based on SCr or CysC).

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Clinical AKI, length of stay, and length of mechanical ventilation. We determined areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve and odds ratios for first postoperative biomarkers to predict AKI.

RESULTS:

The SCr-defined vs CysC-defined AKI incidence differed substantially (43.6% vs 20.6%). Percentage agreement was 71% (κ = 0.38); stage 2 or worse AKI percentage agreement was 95%. Interleukin 18 and kidney injury molecule 1 discriminated for CysC-defined AKI better than for SCr-defined AKI. For interleukin 18 and kidney injury molecule 1, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.74 and 0.65, respectively, for CysC-defined AKI, and 0.66 and 0.58, respectively, for SCr-defined AKI. Fifth (vs first) quintile concentrations of both biomarkers were more strongly associated with CysC-defined AKI. For interleukin 18 and kidney injury molecule 1, the odds ratios were 16.19 (95% CI, 3.55-73.93) and 6.93 (95% CI, 1.88-25.59), respectively, for CysC-defined AKI vs 6.60 (95% CI, 2.76-15.76) and 2.04 (95% CI, 0.94-4.38), respectively, for SCr-defined AKI. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and liver fatty acid-binding protein associations with both definitions were similar. The CysC definitions and SCr definitions were similarly associated with clinical outcomes of resource use.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Compared with the SCr-based definition, the CysC-based definition is more strongly associated with urine interleukin 18 and kidney injury molecule 1 in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Consideration should be made for defining AKI based on CysC in clinical care and future studies.

PMID:
25844892
PMCID:
PMC4506750
DOI:
10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.54
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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