Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Virol. 2015 May;89(10):5502-14. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00118-15. Epub 2015 Mar 4.

Increased Levels of Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins Result in Resistance to R5-Tropic HIV-1 in a Subset of Elite Controllers.

Author information

1
Center of Excellence in Infectious Diseases, Department of Biomedical Sciences, TTUHSC El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
2
Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
3
Center of Excellence in Infectious Diseases, Department of Biomedical Sciences, TTUHSC El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA.
4
Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
5
Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
6
Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA richard.sutton@yale.edu.
7
Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Abstract

Elite controllers (ECs) are a rare group of HIV seropositive individuals who are able to control viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms responsible for this phenotype, however, have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined CD4(+) T cell resistance to HIV in a cohort of elite controllers and explored transcriptional signatures associated with cellular resistance. We demonstrate that a subgroup of elite controllers possess CD4(+) T cells that are specifically resistant to R5-tropic HIV while remaining fully susceptible to X4-tropic and vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G)-pseudotyped viruses. Transcriptome analysis revealed 17 genes that were differentially regulated in resistant elite controllers relative to healthy controls. Notably, the genes encoding macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), CCL3 and CCL3L1, were found to be upregulated. The MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES chemokines are natural ligands of CCR5 and are known to interfere with HIV replication. For three elite controllers, we observed increased production of MIP-1α and/or MIP-1β at the protein level. The supernatant from resistant EC cells contained MIP-1α and MIP-1β and was sufficient to confer R5-tropic resistance to susceptible CD4(+) T cells. Additionally, this effect was reversed by using inhibitory anti-MIP antibodies. These results suggest that the T cells of these particular elite controllers may be naturally resistant to HIV infection by blocking R5-tropic viral entry.

IMPORTANCE:

HIV is a pandemic health problem, and the majority of seropositive individuals will eventually progress to AIDS unless antiretroviral therapy (ART) is administered. However, rare patients, termed elite controllers, have a natural ability to control HIV infection in the absence of ART, but the mechanisms by which they achieve this phenotype have not been fully explored. This paper identifies one mechanism that may contribute to this natural resistance: some elite controllers have CD4(+) T cells that produce high levels of MIP chemokines, which block R5-tropic HIV entry. This mechanism could potentially be exploited to achieve a therapeutic effect in other HIV-seropositive individuals.

PMID:
25740989
PMCID:
PMC4442529
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.00118-15
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center