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Radiology. 2015 Feb;274(2):320-34. doi: 10.1148/radiol.14131925.

How I do it: Cone-beam CT during transarterial chemoembolization for liver cancer.

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From the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1800 Orleans St, Baltimore, MD 21287 (V.T., J.F.G.); Department of Interventional X-ray, Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands (A.R.); and Department of Clinical Informatics, Interventional, and Translational Solutions, Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, NY (M.L.).


Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an imaging technique that provides computed tomographic (CT) images from a rotational scan acquired with a C-arm equipped with a flat panel detector. Utilizing CBCT images during interventional procedures bridges the gap between the world of diagnostic imaging (typically three-dimensional imaging but performed separately from the procedure) and that of interventional radiology (typically two-dimensional imaging). CBCT is capable of providing more information than standard two-dimensional angiography in localizing and/or visualizing liver tumors ("seeing" the tumor) and targeting tumors though precise microcatheter placement in close proximity to the tumors ("reaching" the tumor). It can also be useful in evaluating treatment success at the time of procedure ("assessing" treatment success). CBCT technology is rapidly evolving along with the development of various contrast material injection protocols and multiphasic CBCT techniques. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the principles of CBCT imaging, including purpose and clinical evidence of the different techniques, and to introduce a decision-making algorithm as a guide for the routine utilization of CBCT during transarterial chemoembolization of liver cancer.

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