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Cell Logist. 2014 May 1;4(2):e943618. eCollection 2014 Apr-Jun.

Spatial and temporal control of Rho GTPase functions.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology; Center for Cancer Research; National Cancer Institute; National Institutes of Health ; Bethesda, MD USA.
2
Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Departments of Medicine (Cardiology); Cell Biology and Biomedical Engineering; Yale School of Medicine ; New Haven, CT USA.

Abstract

Rho family GTPases control almost every aspect of cell physiology and, since their discovery, a wealth of knowledge has accumulated about their biochemical regulation and function. However, each Rho GTPase distributes between multiple cellular compartments, even within the same cell, where they are controlled by multiple regulators and signal to multiple effectors. Thus, major questions about spatial and temporal aspects of regulation remain unanswered. In particular, what are the nano-scale dynamics for their activation, membrane targeting, diffusion, effector activation and GTPase inactivation? How do these mechanisms differ in the different cellular compartments where Rho GTPases function? Addressing these complex aspects of Rho GTPase biology will significantly advance our understanding of the spatial and temporal control of cellular functions.

KEYWORDS:

GAPs (GTPase activating proteins); GEFs (guanine nucleotide exchange factors); Rac; Rho GTPases; RhoGDI (Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor); S-palmitoylation; diffusion; domain boundaries; effectors; lipid rafts; prenylation; supported bilayers

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