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Radiol Clin North Am. 2014 Nov;52(6):1325-42. doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2014.07.010. Epub 2014 Sep 4.

The essentials of extracranial carotid ultrasonographic imaging.

Author information

1
Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. Electronic address: katherine_kaproth-joslin@urmc.rochester.edu.
2
Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.
3
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

Abstract

In this article, the standard ultrasonographic scanning techniques and Doppler settings necessary to produce reliable and reproducible carotid imaging are discussed. The normal carotid anatomy is reviewed, including grayscale, color Doppler, and spectral Doppler imaging appearances, is reviewed. The vascular abnormalities caused by atherosclerosis are examined, including plaque morphology characterization as well as waveform and velocity changes caused by stenosis, are examined. In addition, special situations are explored, such as imaging in the presence of an arrhythmia or cardiac assist devices. Imaging after carotid intervention is discussed, including the complications associated with these procedures.

KEYWORDS:

Atherosclerosis; Carotid arteries; Doppler imaging; Hemodynamics; Plaque; Sonography; Stenosis; Ultrasonography

PMID:
25444109
DOI:
10.1016/j.rcl.2014.07.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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