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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014 Oct 16;6(12):a016287. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a016287.

Inflammasomes.

Author information

1
Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520.
2
Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520.

Abstract

Inflammasomes are large cytosolic multiprotein complexes that assemble in response to detection of infection- or stress-associated stimuli and lead to the activation of caspase-1-mediated inflammatory responses, including cleavage and unconventional secretion of the leaderless proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, and initiation of an inflammatory form of cell death referred to as pyroptosis. Inflammasome activation can be induced by a wide variety of microbial pathogens and generally mediates host defense through activation of rapid inflammatory responses and restriction of pathogen replication. In addition to its role in defense against pathogens, recent studies have suggested that the inflammasome is also a critical regulator of the commensal microbiota in the intestine. Finally, inflammasomes have been widely implicated in the development and progression of various chronic diseases, such as gout, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. In this perspective, we discuss the role of inflammasomes in infectious and noninfectious inflammation and highlight areas of interest for future studies of inflammasomes in host defense and chronic disease.

PMID:
25324215
PMCID:
PMC4292152
DOI:
10.1101/cshperspect.a016287
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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