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Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Oct 15;20(20):5207-16. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-0496.

Emerging role of infectious etiologies in the pathogenesis of marginal zone B-cell lymphomas.

Author information

1
Lymphoma Unit, Division of Research, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona, Switzerland. ielsg@ticino.com.
2
Lymphoma Unit, Division of Research, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona, Switzerland. Lymphoma and Genomics Research Program, IOR Institute of Oncology Research, Bellinzona, Switzerland.
3
Lymphoma Unit, Division of Research, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona, Switzerland.

Abstract

Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) arise from lymphoid populations that are induced by chronic inflammation in extranodal sites. The most frequently affected organ is the stomach, where MALT lymphoma is incontrovertibly associated with a chronic gastritis induced by a microbial pathogen, Helicobacter pylori. Gastric MALT lymphoma therefore represents a paradigm for evaluating inflammation-associated lymphomagenesis, which may lead to a deeper understanding of a possible etiologic association between other microorganisms and nongastric marginal zone lymphomas. Besides infectious etiology, chronic inflammation caused by autoimmune diseases, such as Sjögren syndrome or Hashimoto thyroiditis, can also carry a significant risk factor for the development of marginal zone lymphoma. In addition to the continuous antigenic drive, additional oncogenic events play a relevant role in lymphoma growth and progression to the point at which the lymphoproliferative process may eventually become independent of antigenic stimulation. Recent studies on MALT lymphomas have in fact demonstrated genetic alterations affecting the NF-κB) pathway, a major signaling pathway involved in many cancers. This review aims to present marginal zone lymphoma as an example of the close pathogenetic link between chronic inflammation and tumor development, with particular attention to the role of infectious agents and the integration of these observations into everyday clinical practice. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Paradigm Shifts in Lymphoma."

PMID:
25320370
DOI:
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-0496
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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