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J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Sep 30;3(5):e001252. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.114.001252.

Effect of low perceived social support on health outcomes in young patients with acute myocardial infarction: results from the VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients) study.

Author information

1
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (E.M.B.) Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (E.M.B., J.H.L.).
2
Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (K.M.S., R.P.D., M.G., E.S.S., H.M.K.).
3
Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (K.M.S., R.P.D., M.G., E.S.S., H.M.K.) Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, Madrid, Spain (E.S.S., H.M.K.).
4
Department of Cardiology, Hospital General Universitario "Gregario Maraon", Madrid, Spain (H.B.).
5
Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (E.M.B., J.H.L.).
6
Department of Emergency Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (G.O.).
7
Mid-America Heart Institute, University of Missouri-Kansas City Kansas City, MO (J.A.S.).
8
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program, Departments of Internal Medicine and Health Policy and Management, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (H.M.K.) Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (K.M.S., R.P.D., M.G., E.S.S., H.M.K.) Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, Madrid, Spain (E.S.S., H.M.K.).

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Social support is an important predictor of health outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but social support varies by sex and age. Differences in social support could account for sex differences in outcomes of young patients with AMI.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Data from the Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients (VIRGO) study, an observational study of AMI patients aged ≤55 years in the United States and Spain, were used for this study. Patients were categorized as having low versus moderate/high perceived social support using the ENRICHD Social Support Inventory. Outcomes included health status (Short Form-12 physical and mental component scores), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire), and angina-related quality of life (Seattle Angina Questionnaire) evaluated at baseline and 12 months. Among 3432 patients, 21.2% were classified as having low social support. Men and women had comparable levels of social support at baseline. On average, patients with low social support reported lower functional status and quality of life and more depressive symptoms at baseline and 12 months post-AMI. After multivariable adjustment, including baseline health status, low social support was associated with lower mental functioning, lower quality of life, and more depressive symptoms at 12 months (all P<0.001). The relationship between low social support and worse physical functioning was nonsignificant after adjustment (P=0.6). No interactions were observed between social support, sex, or country.

CONCLUSION:

Lower social support is associated with worse health status and more depressive symptoms 12 months after AMI in both young men and women. Sex did not modify the effect of social support.

KEYWORDS:

myocardial infarction; prognosis; sex

PMID:
25271209
PMCID:
PMC4323798
DOI:
10.1161/JAHA.114.001252
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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