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PLoS Genet. 2014 Sep 25;10(9):e1004572. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004572. eCollection 2014 Sep.

Admixture in Latin America: geographic structure, phenotypic diversity and self-perception of ancestry based on 7,342 individuals.

Author information

1
Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, and UCL Genetics Institute, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
2
Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, and UCL Genetics Institute, University College London, London, United Kingdom; National Institute of Anthropology and History, México City, México.
3
Centro Nacional Patagónico, CONICET, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
4
Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
5
Instituto de Alta Investigación Universidad de Tarapacá, Programa de Genética Humana ICBM Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Chile and Centro de Investigaciones del Hombre en el Desierto, Arica, Chile.
6
National Institute of Anthropology and History, México City, México; Facultad de Medicina and Facultad de Química, UNAM, México City, México.
7
Facultad de Medicina and Facultad de Química, UNAM, México City, México.
8
Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil.
9
Remote Sensing and Digital Imaging Laboratory, Graduate Program on Geology, Vale do Rio dos Sinos University, São Leopoldo, Brazil.
10
The Institute for Fiscal Studies, London, United Kingdom.
11
The Institute for Fiscal Studies, London, United Kingdom; Department of Economics, University College London, United Kingdom.
12
Department of Anthropology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
13
Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Carouge, Switzerland.
14
Laboratorios de Investigación y Desarrollo, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Perúana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú
15
Departamento de Antropología. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
16
Facultad de Medicina and Facultad de Química, UNAM, México City, México; Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán", México City, México.

Abstract

The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú). These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry.

PMID:
25254375
PMCID:
PMC4177621
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1004572
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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