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Oncology (Williston Park). 2013 May;27(5):374-81.

Advances in the systemic treatment of metastatic melanoma.

Author information

1
Yale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Abstract

Prior to 2011, the only commercially available agents commonly used to treat metastatic melanoma-including dacarbazine, temozolomide (Temodar), fotemustine, carboplatin, paclitaxel, and interleukin-2-demonstrated limited efficacy, and no study involving these agents had shown an improvement in overall survival. The standard of care for the treatment of metastatic melanoma was radically changed by the subsequent approval of two agents, ipilimumab (Yervoy) and vemurafenib (Zelboraf), both of which improved survival in randomized phase III trials. Within the relatively short time that ipilimumab and vemurafenib have been commercially available, phase II data for the investigational agents nivolumab and MK-3475, for the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib, and for adoptive cell therapy strongly suggest even further improvements in treatment outcomes. Within this rich context of effective agents, the challenge for clinicians and investigators will be to develop predictive biomarkers of response, the optimal sequence of therapy for individual patients, and effective combinations. An additional challenge will be to find the appropriate venue and populations to test promising new agents arising from substantial advances in our understanding of molecular alterations in melanoma cells, of mechanisms of resistance to current agents, and of tumor-host immune interactions.

PMID:
25184258
PMCID:
PMC6092183
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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