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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Nov;1843(11):2784-2795. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2014.08.003. Epub 2014 Aug 9.

Macromolecular transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm: Advances in mechanism and emerging links to disease.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, 175 S. University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA; Purdue University Center for Cancer Research, Purdue University, Hansen Life Sciences Research Building, Room 141, 201 S. University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Electronic address: ejtran@purdue.edu.
2
Department of Cell Biology, Yale School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
3
Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, 4117 Rollins Research Center, 1510 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address: acorbe2@emory.edu.

Abstract

Transport of macromolecules between the cytoplasm and the nucleus is critical for the function of all eukaryotic cells. Large macromolecular channels termed nuclear pore complexes that span the nuclear envelope mediate the bidirectional transport of cargoes between the nucleus and cytoplasm. However, the influence of macromolecular trafficking extends past the nuclear pore complex to transcription and RNA processing within the nucleus and signaling pathways that reach into the cytoplasm and beyond. At the Mechanisms of Nuclear Transport biennial meeting held from October 18 to 23, 2013 in Woods Hole, MA, researchers in the field met to report on their recent findings. The work presented highlighted significant advances in understanding nucleocytoplasmic trafficking including how transport receptors and cargoes pass through the nuclear pore complex, the many signaling pathways that impinge on transport pathways, interplay between the nuclear envelope, nuclear pore complexes, and transport pathways, and numerous links between transport pathways and human disease. The goal of this review is to highlight newly emerging themes in nuclear transport and underscore the major questions that are likely to be the focus of future research in the field.

KEYWORDS:

Karyopherin/importin/exportin; Nuclear pore; Nucleocytoplasmic transport; Protein import; RNA export; RNA processing

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