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Abdom Imaging. 2015 Feb;40(2):385-99. doi: 10.1007/s00261-014-0203-0.

The gallbladder: uncommon gallbladder conditions and unusual presentations of the common gallbladder pathological processes.

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Department of Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, 20 York St, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA,


This article reviews a spectrum of gallbladder conditions that are either uncommon or represent unusual manifestations of common diseases. These conditions are divided into four major categories: (a) congenital anomalies and normal variants including duplication, ectopia, and lymphangioma; (b) inflammatory processes and stone-related diseases and complications including adenomyomatosis, emphysematous cholecystitis, xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, gangrenous and hemorrhagic cholecystitis, perforation, gallstone ileus, and Bouveret and Mirizzi syndromes; (c) gallbladder neoplasms including adenocarcinoma with associated porcelain gallbladder, squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma, melanoma, and neurofibroma. A thorough understanding of the imaging characteristics of each condition can help the radiologist to make a timely and accurate diagnosis, thus avoiding potentially harmful delays in patient management and decreasing morbidity and mortality rates.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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