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J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2014 Sep;16(9):686-92. doi: 10.1111/jch.12376. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

Plasma cardiotrophin-1 levels are associated with hypertensive heart disease: a meta-analysis.

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Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; The Cardiology Department, Chinese Peoples' Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.


Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a member of the interleukin 6 cytokine superfamily. Plasma CT-1 levels have been associated with heart failure and hypertension in small independent studies. Whether plasma CT-1 levels are associated with progression of hypertensive heart disease is poorly understood. The authors carried out a meta-analysis using published studies and electronic databases. Relevant data were extracted using standardized algorithms. Additional data were obtained directly from investigators when indicated. A total of 18 studies were included that reported on association between CT-1 level and hypertension (n=8), cardiac hypertrophy (n=9), and heart failure (HF) (n=10). The serum levels of CT-1 were significantly higher in patients with hypertension (standard mean difference [SMD], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-1.06 fmol/mL), left ventricular hypertrophy (SMD, 0.88; 95% CI 0.60-1.17 fmol/mL), or HF (SMD, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51-0.80 fmol/mL) compared with controls. Subgroup analysis revealed CT-1 levels to be highest in patients with hypertension-induced hypertrophy with HF, followed by patients with hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy without HF (SMD, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.75 fmol/mL), patients with hypertension without left ventricular hypertrophy (SMD, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.46-0.88 fmol/mL) as compared with normotensive patients (SMD, 0.74; 95% CI, 10.45-1.04 fmol/mL). Increased plasma CT-1 levels are associated with risk for HF in hypertensive patients. CT-1 may serve as a novel biomarker in determining prognosis in hypertensive patients.

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