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Am J Reprod Immunol. 2014 Aug;72(2):107-16. doi: 10.1111/aji.12289. Epub 2014 Jul 4.

Understanding the complexity of the immune system during pregnancy.

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Division of Reproductive Sciences, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.


Progress in our understanding of the role of the maternal immune system during healthy pregnancy will help us better understand the role of the immune system in adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this review, we discuss our present understanding of the 'immunity of pregnancy' in the context of the response to cervical and placental infections and how these responses affect both the mother and the fetus. We discuss novel and challenging concepts that help explain the immunological aspects of pregnancy and how the mother and fetus respond to infection.


Immune regulation; macrophages; pregnancy; trophoblast

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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