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Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2014 Sep;23(5):513-8. doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000044.

Renalase: its role as a cytokine, and an update on its association with type 1 diabetes and ischemic stroke.

Author information

1
aDepartment of Medicine, VACHS, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA bRenal Division, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Remarkable progress has been achieved over the past 2 years in understanding the cellular actions of renalase, its pathophysiology and potential therapeutic utility.

RECENT FINDINGS:

There has been a paradigm shift in our thinking about the mechanisms underlying the cellular actions of renalase. We now understand that, independent of its enzymatic properties, renalase functions as a signaling molecule, a cytokine that interacts with a yet-to-be identified plasma membrane receptor(s) to activate protein kinase B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These signaling properties are critical to its cytoprotective effects. New information regarding renalase's enzymatic function as an α-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase/anomerase will be reviewed. Lastly, we will discuss the association of certain single nucleotide polymorphisms in the renalase gene with type 1 diabetes and with ischemic stroke, and the clinical implications of these findings.

SUMMARY:

The consistent association of renalase single nucleotide polymorphisms and the development of type 1 diabetes is a great interest particularly because we now understand that renalase functions as a cytokine. Future work on renalase should focus on exploring the identity of its receptor(s), and its potential role as an immune modulator.

PMID:
24992568
PMCID:
PMC4383282
DOI:
10.1097/MNH.0000000000000044
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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