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Environ Res. 2014 Aug;133:388-95. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.04.033. Epub 2014 Jun 17.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in residential dust and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Author information

1
Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address: nicole.deziel@yale.edu.
2
School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA.
3
Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.
4
Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
5
University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
6
Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, CA, USA.
7
Kaiser Permanente, Santa Clara, CA, USA.

Abstract

Several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known or probable human carcinogens. We evaluated the relationship between PAH exposure and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) using concentrations in residential dust as an exposure indicator. We conducted a population-based case-control study (251 ALL cases, 306 birth-certificate controls) in Northern and Central California from 2001 to 2007. We collected residential dust using a high volume small surface sampler (HVS3) (n=185 cases, 212 controls) or by sampling from participants' household vacuum cleaners (n=66 cases, 94 controls). We evaluated log-transformed concentrations of 9 individual PAHs, the summed PAHs, and the summed PAHs weighted by their carcinogenic potency (the toxic equivalence). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression adjusting for demographic characteristics and duration between diagnosis/reference date and dust collection. Among participants with HVS3 dust, risk of ALL was not associated with increasing concentration of any PAHs based on OR perln(ng/g). Among participants with vacuum dust, we observed positive associations between ALL risk and increasing concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (OR perln[ng/g]=1.42, 95% CI=0.95, 2.12), dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.11, 3.55), benzo[k]fluoranthene (OR=1.71, 95% CI=0.91, 3.22), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.04, 3.16), and the toxic equivalence (OR=2.35, 95% CI=1.18, 4.69). The increased ALL risk among participants with vacuum dust suggests that PAH exposure may increase the risk of childhood ALL; however, reasons for the different results based on HVS3 dust samples deserve further study.

KEYWORDS:

Childhood leukemia; Dust; Environmental epidemiology; Environmental exposures; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

PMID:
24948546
PMCID:
PMC4119528
DOI:
10.1016/j.envres.2014.04.033
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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