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Health Place. 2014 Jul;28:194-204. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2014.05.004. Epub 2014 Jun 10.

Spatial and temporal variation in type 1 diabetes incidence in Western Australia from 1991 to 2010: increased risk at higher latitudes and over time.

Author information

1
Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, 100 Roberts Road, Subiaco, WA 6008, Australia. Electronic address: stephen.ball@telethonkids.org.au.
2
Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, 100 Roberts Road, Subiaco, WA 6008, Australia; Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Princess Margaret Hospital, Roberts Road, Subiaco, WA 6008, Australia. Electronic address: aveni.haynes@health.wa.gov.au.
3
Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, 100 Roberts Road, Subiaco, WA 6008, Australia. Electronic address: peter.jacoby@telethonkids.org.au.
4
Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, 100 Roberts Road, Subiaco, WA 6008, Australia; Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Yale University, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. Electronic address: gavin.pereira@telethonkids.org.au.
5
Public Health & Clinical Services Division, Western Australian Department of Health, 189 Royal St, East Perth, WA 6004, Australia. Electronic address: laura.j.miller2@health.wa.gov.au.
6
Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, 100 Roberts Road, Subiaco, WA 6008, Australia. Electronic address: carol.bower@telethonkids.org.au.
7
Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, 100 Roberts Road, Subiaco, WA 6008, Australia; Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Princess Margaret Hospital, Roberts Road, Subiaco, WA 6008, Australia. Electronic address: elizabeth.davis@health.wa.gov.au.

Abstract

This study analysed spatial and temporal variation in childhood incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) among Western Australia׳s 36 Health Districts from 1991 to 2010. There was a strong latitudinal gradient of 3.5% (95% CI, 0.2-7.2) increased risk of T1DM per degree south of the Equator, as averaged across the range 15-35° south. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis of vitamin D deficiency at higher latitudes. In addition there was a 2.4% (95% CI, 1.3-3.6) average increase in T1DM incidence per year. These effects could not be explained by population density, socioeconomic status, remoteness or ethnicity.

KEYWORDS:

Latitude; Population density; Remoteness; Socioeconomic status; type 1 diabetes mellitus

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