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Eat Behav. 2014 Apr;15(2):182-5. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2014.01.003. Epub 2014 Feb 1.

Menopause and metabolic syndrome in obese individuals with binge eating disorder.

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Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.


Menopausal transition has been associated with the emergence of metabolic abnormalities, which may increase risk for chronic medical conditions in women. This study compared metabolic function between premenopausal women (n = 152), postmenopausal women (n = 88), and men (n =9 8) recruited for treatment studies for obesity co-occurring with binge eating disorder (BED), a high-risk population for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). Postmenopausal women were more likely than premenopausal women to show elevated total cholesterol (OR = 2.75; 95% CI = 1.56-4.80) and poor glycemic control (OR = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.32-6.33) but were more likely to have lower HDL levels (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.19-0.68). These became non-significant after adjusting for age. Both pre- and postmenopausal women were less likely than age-matched men to show elevated levels of triglycerides (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.13-0.53 [postmenopausal], OR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.16-0.53 [premenopausal]), blood pressure (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.25-0.91 [postmenopausal], OR=0.40; 95% CI = 0.23-0.69 [premenopausal]), and less likely to have MetS (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.21-0.78 [postmenopausal], OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.27-0.79 [premenopausal]). Premenopausal women were also less likely to have elevated fasting glucose level (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26-0.97) than age-matched men. Among obese women with BED, aging may have a more profound impact on metabolic abnormalities than menopause, suggesting the importance of early intervention of obesity and symptoms of BED. The active monitoring of metabolic function in obese men with BED may also be critical.


Binge eating disorder; Menopause; Metabolic syndrome; Obesity; Sex differences

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