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J Affect Disord. 2014 Jun;162:102-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.03.024. Epub 2014 Mar 27.

Typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder in the U.S. adult population.

Author information

1
United States Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address: robert.pietrzak@yale.edu.
2
Department of Psychology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
3
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; United States Department of Veterans Affairs New England Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, West Haven, CT, USA.
4
Department of Psychology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Departments of Psychiatry and Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
5
Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
6
United States Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by heterogeneous clusters of re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal symptoms. However, data are lacking regarding the predominant, population-based typologies of this disorder, and how they are linked to trauma-related characteristics, psychiatric comorbidities, and health-related quality of life.

METHODS:

We used latent class analyses (LCAs) to evaluate predominant typologies of PTSD in a nationally representative sample of 2463 U.S. adults with PTSD. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were then conducted to evaluate trauma-related characteristics, psychiatric comorbidities, and health-related quality of life variables associated with these typologies.

RESULTS:

LCAs revealed three predominant typologies of PTSD-Anxious-Re-experiencing (weighted prevalence=32.2%), Dysphoric (32.8%), and High Symptom (35.0%). Compared to the Dysphoric class, the Anxious-Re-experiencing and High Symptom classes were more likely to report sexual assault, physical assault, and military combat as their worst traumatic events; had an earlier age of onset and longer duration of PTSD; and were more likely to be diagnosed with nicotine dependence and borderline personality disorder, to have attempted suicide, and had poorer physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The High Symptom class had increased odds of all disorders, suicide attempts, and the poorest HRQoL.

LIMITATIONS:

Diagnoses were based on DSM-IV criteria and cross-sectional analyses preclude examination of how PTSD typologies are temporally related to other variables.

CONCLUSION:

PTSD in the general U.S. adult population is characterized by three predominant typologies, which are differentially linked to trauma and clinical characteristics. These findings underscore the importance of personalized approaches to the assessment, monitoring, and treatment of PTSD that take into consideration the heterogeneous manifestations of this disorder.

KEYWORDS:

Depression; Posttraumatic stress disorder; Trauma

PMID:
24767013
DOI:
10.1016/j.jad.2014.03.024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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