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Acad Radiol. 2014 Jul;21(7):842-50. doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2013.10.022. Epub 2014 Apr 13.

24/7/365 in-house radiologist coverage: effect on resident education.

Author information

  • 1Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 234 Goodman Street, P.O. Box 670761, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0761. Electronic address:
  • 2Department of Medical Education, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI.
  • 3Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI.
  • 4Department of Radiology, Yale University College of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
  • 5Department of Radiology, University of Washington College of Medicine, Seattle, WA.
  • 6Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI.
  • 7Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH.



To compare programs with and without 24-hour/7 days a week/365 days a year (24/7/365) in-house radiologist coverage regarding resident perceptions of their on-call experience, volume of resident dictations on call, and report turnaround time.


Residents from six academic radiology departments were invited to participate in an 11-item online survey. Survey items were related to workload, level of autonomy, faculty feedback, comfort level, faculty supervision, and overall educational experience while on call from 8 pm to 8 am. Each site provided data on imaging volume, radiologist coverage, volume of examinations dictated by residents, number of residents on call, and report turnaround time from 8 pm to 8 am. F-ratios and eta-squares were calculated to determine the relationships between dependent and independent variables. A P value < .05 was considered statistically significant.


A total of 146 (67%) of 217 residents responded. Residents in programs with 24/7/365 in-house radiologist coverage dictated a lower percentage of examinations (46%) compared with other residents (81%) and rated faculty feedback more positively (mean 3.8 vs. 3.3) but rated their level of autonomy (mean 3.6 vs. 4.5) and educational experience (mean 3.6 vs. 4.2) more negatively (all P < .05). Report turnaround time was lower in programs with 24/7/365 coverage than those without (mean 1.7 hours vs. 9.1 hours). The majority of resident comments were negative and related to loss of autonomy with 24/7/365 coverage.


More rapid report turnaround time related to 24/7/365 coverage may come at the expense of resident education.


All-night radiologist coverage; radiology resident education on call

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