Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Stem Cells. 2014 Mar 13;3(1):1-20. eCollection 2014.

Decellularized matrices for cardiovascular tissue engineering.

Author information

1
Universita' Vita-Salute San Raffaele Milan, 20132, Italy.
2
Cardiovascular Research Center, Yale Medical School New Haven, CT, 06511, US.

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in the Western world. The replacement of damaged vessels and valves has been practiced since the 1950's. Synthetic grafts, usually made of bio-inert materials, are long-lasting and mechanically relevant, but fail when it comes to "biointegration". Decellularized matrices, instead, can be considered biological grafts capable of stimulating in vivo migration and proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs), recruitment and differentiation of mural cells, finally, culminating in the formation of a biointegrated tissue. Decellularization protocols employ osmotic shock, ionic and non-ionic detergents, proteolitic digestions and DNase/RNase treatments; most of them effectively eliminate the cellular component, but show limitations in preserving the native structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this review, we examine the current state of the art relative to decellularization techniques and biological performance of decellularized heart, valves and big vessels. Furthermore, we focus on the relevance of ECM components, native and resulting from decellularization, in mediating in vivo host response and determining repair and regeneration, as opposed to graft corruption.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular; decellularization; matrix; progenitors; tissue engineering

PMID:
24660110
PMCID:
PMC3960753
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center