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Gastroenterology. 2014 May;146(6):1513-24. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.01.020. Epub 2014 Jan 15.

Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and liver diseases.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California. Electronic address: beschnabl@ucsd.edu.
2
Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Abstract

The human intestine harbors a diverse community of microbes that promote metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Disturbance of its homeostasis can result in disease. We review factors that disrupt intestinal homeostasis and contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis. Liver disease has long been associated with qualitative and quantitative (overgrowth) dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota. Extrinsic factors, such as the Western diet and alcohol, contribute to these changes. Dysbiosis results in intestinal inflammation, a breakdown of the intestinal barrier, and translocation of microbial products in animal models. However, the contribution of the intestinal microbiome to liver disease goes beyond simple translocation of bacterial products that promote hepatic injury and inflammation. Microbial metabolites produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment and host factors are equally important in the pathogenesis of liver disease. We review how the combination of liver insult and disruptions in intestinal homeostasis contribute to liver disease.

KEYWORDS:

Alcoholic Steatohepatitis; Endotoxin; Microbiota

PMID:
24440671
PMCID:
PMC3996054
DOI:
10.1053/j.gastro.2014.01.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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