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Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2014 Jan;297(1):83-97. doi: 10.1002/ar.22838. Epub 2013 Dec 2.

Tissue engineering in the vasculature.

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Interdepartmental Program in Vascular Biology and Therapeutics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.


Tissue engineering holds great promise to address complications and limitations encountered with the use of traditional prosthetic materials, such as thrombogenicity, infection, and future degeneration which represent the major morbidity and mortality after device implant surgery. The general concept of tissue engineering consists of three main components: a scaffold material, a cell type for seeding the scaffold, and biochemical, physio-chemical signaling and remodeling process. This remodeling process is guided by cell signals derived from both seeded cells and host inflammatory cells that infiltrate the scaffold and deposit extracellular matrix, forming the neotissue. Vascular tissue engineering is at the forefront in the translation of this technology to clinical practice, as tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) have now been successfully implanted in children with congenital heart disease. In this report, we review the history, advances, and state of the art in TEVGs.


stem cell; tissue engineering; vasculature

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