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Clin Chest Med. 2013 Dec;34(4):799-810. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2013.08.013. Epub 2013 Oct 9.

Standard nonspecific therapies in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care, & Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, PO Box 208057, New Haven, CT 06520-8057, USA.


Recent advances in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) research have created a new era of PAH-specific therapies. Although these therapeutics have revolutionized PAH therapy, their innovation was predated by supportive but nonspecific medical therapies adapted from their use in more common cardiopulmonary diseases. These therapies include oxygen therapy, diuretics, digoxin, anticoagulation, and high-dose calcium channel blockers. Expert opinion continues to support the use of adjunct therapies based on current pathologic understandings of PAH combined with some evidence extrapolated from small studies. This article discusses why these therapies continue to play an important role in the treatment of patients with PAH.


Adjunct therapies; Anticoagulation; Calcium channel blockers; Digoxin; Diuretics; Oxygen therapy; Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Pulmonary hypertension

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